محمد وديع يحبه الجميع. خمسون نص في فهم المقروء

sources are not contemporaneous with the events they purport to relate and sometimes were written many centuries later 137 Netanel's work was virtually unknown beyond his native Yemen until modern times, so had little influence on later Jewish thought• Ideally, one would like to be able to check such accounts against contemporary evidence
Moreover, many of them provide evidence of embellishment and invention that were introduced to serve the purposes of political or religious apologetic however, there is no relevant archaeological, epigraphic, or numismatic evidence dating from the time of Muhammad, nor are there any references to him in non-Muslim sources dating from the period before 632

Lapidus 2002 , pp 0.

محمد وديع عبدالفتاح
محمد
"Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world• The Bustan al-Ukul, by Nathanael ibn al-Fayyumi, edited and translated by David Levine, Columbia University Oriental Studies Vol
خمسون نص في فهم المقروء
Denis Gril, Miracles, , Brill, 2007
See, for example, Bowersock, Glen Warren, Peter Robert Lamont Brown and Oleg Grabar Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World 1999, Harvard University Press p Seeing Islam as others saw it: a survey and evaluation of Christian, Jewish, Robert G
Peter Teed 1992 , p

597, which notes that many of the details surrounding Muhammad's life as given in the biographies, are "problematic in certain respects, the most important of which is that they represent a tradition of living narrative that is likely to have developed orally for a considerable period before it was given even a relatively fixed written form.

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محمد وديع عبدالفتاح
5, "One major challenge to examining initial contacts between Byzantium and the early Muslim umma arises from the controversy surrounding the traditional Islamic account
محمد
انشودة محمد وديع صف ثاني ابتدائي
El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs 2004, Harvard University Press p